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Harappan Sites

Let us move to the next destination with a spread-out of Harappan sites. Haryana has a number of sites belonging to the Harappan culture that have revealed a great amount of information about a people who lived about 5000 years ago.

Rakhigarhi has gained a place of great importance owing to the evidence provided through excavations and the sheer size of the site making it a significant place during it’s times.

Farmana, on the other hand is probably the second largest after Rakhigarhi. Considering the fact that covering all the sites may not be easy here, let us have a look at these two sites that have recently thrown much light on the Harappan civilization.


Having read about the earlier mentioned sites on the page, are you not intrigued to know what the Harappan people looked like? The recent excavations at Rakhigarhi, Haryana have given the site the status of being the biggest Indus Valley Civilization site in the Indian subcontinent. This site happens to be one of the few Harappan sites that has experienced an unbroken settlement – Early Harappan, Early Mature Harappan and the urbanized Mature Harappan. This certainly makes Rakhigarhi a site with rich history

The 22 meter deep trench has revealed two different phases of the culture- 4000-2600 BCE and 2600-2000 BCE. This has provided an insight into the economic growth and various other aspects of the culture. Trade and craft of the area suggests use of jewelry from shells and beads imported from Gujarat, Maharashtra and Tamil Nadu and eventually progressing to intricate tin glazed pottery and lapis lazuli imported from Afghanistan.

The DNA from the skeletons excavated has been sent to South Korea which can help in reconstructing the Harappan people. This may put to rest the debate whether Harappans were an indigenous lot or migrants.


A walk on the streets of the quaint village of Farmana may not immediately speak about the history that it holds. Not too far from Rakhigarhi, Farmana consists of structural complexes, small streets and lanes, all well aligned along the margins.

The number of burials found in the Cemetery area throws light on various burial customs of the culture along with beliefs of life after death etc.

It gives evidence of primary (complete skeleton), secondary (some bones) and symbolic burials with variation in orientation. These variations suggest existence of various groups in the communities with different set of beliefs.

A trip to Haryana would definitely be an enlightening one taking you back in time where a massive Harappan civilization flourished for a long time. Imagining the entire history stand in front of you, letting your imagination take you through the lanes and houses of the Harappan people and watch them work with the pottery, the beads, the toys, the seals, would be one of the greatest moments.

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